11.1.5 Vetigastropoda

Overview

This clade of Gastropoda is entirely marine and includes species with both coiled and limpet-like forms. A distinctive feature of many Vetigastropods is the presence of a slit or one or more holes on the shell. Some examples are below.

Slit Shells

The Pleurotomarioidea–or, slit snails–take their name form the long slit that indents the last whorl of their shells.

Modern Pleurotomaria teramachii from Taiwan, collected at depth of 200-300 m (PRI 70103). Creative Commons License
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Keyhole Limpets

Another group of Vetigastropoda, keyhole limpets (Fissurellidae), have a hole at the top of their cap-like shell. Their name comes from the shape of this hole.

Modern Megathura crenulata from California (PRI 70102).Creative Commons License
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Abalones

By far the most famous of the Vetigastropoda are the abalones (family Haliotidae, genus Haliotis).

Modern Haliotis rufescens from California (PRI 70105).Creative Commons License
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These large snails, which have a series of holes in their shell, are edible and considered by some a delicacy. As shown in the video below, attempts are currently underway in some areas to farm abalone.

In addition to being a food source, the nacreous layer of the inner shell has long been a source of mother-of-pearl (see image below). Mother-of-pearl has long been used as a material for clothing buttons, among other uses.

Modern Haliotis irus from New Zealand (PRI 70101). The top layer of shell material has been removed from the right-hand of the specimen, revealing the nacreous layer beneath. Creative Commons License
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Vetigastropods likely originated in the early Paleozoic (Zapata et al., 2014).

Families of Vestigastropoda

Gofas and Bouchet (2010) recognize the following gastropod families as members of the Vetigastropoda († indicates extinct families). This list was copied from the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) on February 7, 2017 and is reposted here in concordance with the source material’s Creative Commons BY 4.0 license. The link associated with each name will direct you to additional information about that family on WoRMS.

Family Amberleyidae Wenz, 1938 †
Family Angariidae Gray, 1857
Family Areneidae McLean, 2012
Family Eotomariidae Wenz, 1938 †
Family Gosseletinidae Wenz, 1938 †
Family Luciellidae Knight, 1956 †
Family Phanerotrematidae Knight, 1956 †
Family Pseudoschizogoniidae Bandel, 2009 †
Family Wortheniellidae Bandel, 2009 †
Family Fissurellidae Fleming, 1822
Family Haliotidae Rafinesque, 1815
Family Temnotropidae Cox, 1960 †
Family Addisoniidae Dall, 1882
Family Bathyphytophilidae Moskalev, 1978
Family Caymanabyssiidae Marshall, 1986
Family Cocculinellidae Moskalev, 1971
Family Lepetellidae Dall, 1882
Family Osteopeltidae Marshall, 1987
Family Pseudococculinidae Hickman, 1983
Family Pyropeltidae McLean & Haszprunar, 1987
Family Lepetodrilidae McLean, 1988
Family Sutilizonidae McLean, 1989
Family Colloniidae Cossmann, 1917
Family Phasianellidae Swainson, 1840
Family Catantostomatidae Wenz, 1938 †
Family Kittlidiscidae Cox, 1960 †
Family Phymatopleuridae Batten, 1956 †
Family Pleurotomariidae Swainson, 1840
Family Polytremariidae Wenz, 1938 †
Family Portlockiellidae Batten, 1956 †
Family Raphistomatidae Koken, 1896 †
Family Rhaphischismatidae Knight, 1956 †
Family Trochotomidae Cox, 1960 †
Family Zygitidae Cox, 1960 †
Family Cirridae Cossmann, 1916 †
Family Pavlodiscidae Frýda, 1998 †
Family Porcelliidae Koken, 1895 †
Family Anatomidae McLean, 1989
Family Depressizonidae Geiger, 2003
Family Larocheidae Finlay, 1927
Family Scissurellidae Gray, 1847
Family Calliotropidae Hickman & McLean, 1990
Family Cataegidae McLean & Quinn, 1987
Family Chilodontidae Wenz, 1938
Family Eucyclidae Koken, 1896 †
Family Eucycloscalidae Gründel, 2007 †
Family Laubellidae Cox, 1960 †
Family Seguenziidae Verrill, 1884
Family Anomphalidae Wenz, 1938 †
Family Araeonematidae Nützel, 2012 †
Family Calliostomatidae Thiele, 1924 (1847)
Family Elasmonematidae Knight, 1956 †
Family Eucochlidae Bandel, 2002 †
Family Liotiidae Gray, 1850
Family Margaritidae Thiele, 1924
Family Microdomatidae Wenz, 1938 †
Family Nododelphinulidae Cox, 1960 †
Family Proconulidae Cox, 1960 †
Family Skeneidae Clark W., 1851
Family Solariellidae Powell, 1951
Family Tegulidae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971
Family Trochidae Rafinesque, 1815
Family Turbinidae Rafinesque, 1815
Family Tychobraheidae Horný, 1992 †
Family Velainellidae Vasseur, 1880 †
Family Ataphridae Cossmann, 1915
Family Crosseolidae Hickman, 2013
Family Discohelicidae Schröder, 1995 †
Family Pendromidae Warén, 1991
Family Schizogoniidae Cox, 1960 †
Family Sinuspiridae Mazaev, 2011 †
Family Trochaclididae Thiele, 1928

Genus Unassigned to Family

Genus Sahlingia Warén & Bouchet, 2001

References

Gofas, S. and P. Bouchet. 201. Vetigastropoda. Accessed on February 7, 2017 through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=156485.

Zapata, F., N. G. Wilson, M. Howison, S. C. S. Andrade, K. M. Jörger, M. Schrödl, F. E. Goetz, G. Giribet, and C. W. Dunn. 2014. Phylogenomic analyses of deep gastropod relationships reject Orthogastropoda. Prooceeding of the Royal Society, B, 281: 20141739. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.1739. Link.