Image above: Specimens of the spiny bivalve Spondylus on display at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University. Photograph by Jonathan R. Hendricks.
References and Further Reading
Barnes, R.D. 1980. Invertebrate zoology. 4th ed. Saunders College, Philadelphia, 1089 p.
Beerbower, J.R. 1968. Search for the past. An introduction to paleontology. 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 512 p.
Bieler, R., P.M. Mikkelsen, T.M., Collins, E.A. Glover, V.L. González, D.L., Graf, E.M. Harper, E.M., J. Healy, G.Y. Kawauchi, P.P. Sharma, S. Staubach, E.E. Strong, J.D. Taylor, I. Tëmkin, J.D. Zardus, S. Clark, A. Guzmán, E. McIntyre, P. Sharp, and G. Giribet. 2014. Investigating the Bivalve Tree of Life – an exemplar-based approach combining molecular and novel morphological characters. Invertebrate Systematics, 28(1): 32–115.
Brett, C.E., V.B. Dick, and G.C. Baird. 1991. Comparative taphonomy and paleoecology of Middle Devonian dark gray and black shale facies from western New York. In E. Landing and C.E. Brett, eds., Dynamic stratigraphy and depositional environments of the Hamilton Group (Middle Devonian) in New York State, Part II. New York State Museum Bulletin, No. 469, p. 5–36.
Brower, J.C., and O.B. Nye, Jr. 1991. Quantitative analysis of paleocommunities in the lower part of the Hamilton Group near Cazenovia, New York. In E. Landing and C.E. Brett, eds., Dynamic stratigraphy and depositional environments of the Hamilton Group (Middle Devonian) in New York State, Part II. New York State Museum Bulletin, No. 469, p. 5–36.
Chen, Z.-Q., and M.J. Benton. 2012. The timing and pattern of biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction. Nature Geoscience, 5(6): 375–383.
Combosch, D.J., T.M. Collins, E.A. Glover, D.L. Graf, E.M. Harper, J.M. Healy, G.Y. Kawauchi, S. Lemer, E. McIntyre, E.E. Strong, J.D. Taylor, J.D. Zardus, P.M. Mikkelsen, G. Giribet, and R. Bieler. 2017. A family-level Tree of Life for bivalves based on a Sanger-sequencing approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 107:191–208.
Crame, J.A. 2002. Evolution of taxonomic diversity gradients in the marine realm: a comparison of Late Jurassic and Recent bivalve faunas. Paleobiology, 28(2): 184–207.
Dame, R.F. 2011 Ecology of marine bivalves: An ecosystem approach, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 284 p.
Gao, P., Z. Liao, X.-x. Wang, L.-f. Bao, M.-h. Fan, X.-m. Li, C.-w. Wu, and S.-w. Xia. 2015. Layer-by-layer proteomic analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis. PLOS ONE 10(9): e0137487.
Gili, E., and S. Götz. 2018. Part N, Volume 2, Chapter 26B: Paleoecology of rudists. Treatise Online, 103:1–29.
Gosling, E. 2015. Marine bivalve molluscs. 2nd ed. Wiley-Blackwell, 536 p.
Harnik, P.G., and R. Lockwood. 2011. Part N, Revised, Volume 1, Chapter 24: Extinction in the marine Bivalvia. Treatise Online No. 29, 24 p.
Hickman, C.S. 2014. Paleogene marine bivalves of the deep-water Keasey Formation in Oregon, part IV: The Anomalodesmatans. PaleoBios, 31(3):1–21.
Huber, M. 2010 Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world's marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. ConchBooks, Hackenheim, Germany, 901 p.
Ivany, L.C., T. Brey, M. Huber, D.P. Buick, and B.R. Schöne. 2011. El Niño in the Eocene greenhouse recorded by fossil bivalves and wood from Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters, 38: L16709, doi:10.1029/2011GL048635.
Jablonski, D., K. Roy, and J.W. Valentine. 2006. Out of the tropics: evolutionary dynamics of the latitudinal diversity gradient. Science, 314: 102–106.
Jones, D.S., D.F. Williams, M.A. Arthur, and D.E. Krantz. 1984. Interpreting the paleoenvironmental, paleoclimatic and life history records in mollusc shells. Geobios, Memoire Special no.8: 333-339.
Kauffman, E.G., and C.C. Johnson. 1988. The morphological and ecological evolution of middle and upper Cretaceous reef-building rudistids. Palaios, 3: 194–216.
Kauffman, E.G., P.J. Harries, C. Meyer, T. Villamil, C. Arango, and G. Jaecks. 2007. Paleoecology of giant Inoceramidae (Platyceramus) on a Santonian (Cretaceous) seafloor in Colorado. Journal of Paleontology, 81(1), pp. 64–81.
LaBarbera, M. 1981. The ecology of Mesozoic Gryphaea, Exogyra, and Ilymatogyra (Bivalvia: Mollusca) in a modern ocean. Paleobiology, 7(4): 510–526.
Mikkelsen, P., and R. Bieler, R. 2011. Seashells of southern Florida: Bivalves. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 496 p.
Mitchell, S.F., and S.A. James-Williamson. 2015. An enormous fossil shell: The inspiration the led to the description of Jamaica's fossil rudist bivalves. Jamaica Journal, 35(3): 62–64.
de Paula, S.M., and M. Silveira. 2009. Studies on molluscan shells: Contributions from microscopic and analytical methods. Micron, 40: 669–690.
Petsios, E., and D.J. Bottjer. 2016. Quantitative analysis of the ecological dominance of benthic disaster taxa in the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction. Paleobiology, 42(3): 380–393.
Ponder, W.F., and D.R. Lindberg, with illustrations by J.M. Ponder. 2020. Biology and evolution of the Mollusca. 2 vols. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 900 + 890 p.
Pojeta, J. 1987. Class Pelecypoda. In Boardman, R.S., A.H. Cheetham, and A.J. Rowell, eds., Fossil invertebrates. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Palo Alto, CA, pp. 386–435.
Roy, K., D. Jablonski, and J.W. Valentine. 2000. Dissecting latitudinal diversity gradients: functional groups and clades of marine bivalves. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 267: 293–299.
Seilacher, A. 1984. Constructional morphology of bivalves: evolutionary pathways in primary versus secondary soft-bottom dwellers. Palaeontology, 27(2): 207–237.
Seilacher, A. 1998. Rudists as bivalvian dinosaurs. In P.A. Johnston and J.W. Haggart, eds., Bivalves: An eon of evolution. University of Calgary Press, Calgary, Alberta, pp. 423–436.
Skelton, P.W. 1979. Preserved ligament in a radiolitid rudist bivalve and its implication of mantle marginal feeding in the group. Paleobiology, 5(2): 90–106.
Stanley, S.M. 1968. Post-Paleozoic adaptive radiation of infaunal bivalve molluscs: a consequence of mantle fusion and siphon formation. Journal of Paleontology, 42(1): 214–229.
Stanley, S.M. 1970. Relation of shell form to life habits in the Bivalvia (Mollusca). Geological Society of America Memoir, No. 125, 296 p.
Torrens, H.S., E. Benamy, E.B. Daeschler, E.E. Spamer, and A.E. Bogan. 2000. Etheldred Benett of Wiltshire, England, the first lady geologist: Her fossil collection in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and the Rediscovery of "Lost" specimens of Jurassic Trigoniidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with their soft anatomy preserved. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 150: 59–123.
Yancey, T.E., and M.J. Heaney, III. 2000. Carboniferous praecardioid bivalves from the exceptional Buckhorn Asphalt biota of south-central Oklahoma, USA. In Harper, E.M., J.D. Taylor, and J.A. Crame, eds., The evolutionary biology of the Bivalvia. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 177: 291–301.