1.4 Neritimorpha


While less diverse than Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia, the clade Neritimorpha–which has ~2,000 extant species–is also ecologically diverse, with members occupying marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats (Uribe et al., 2016). Similar to both of these larger clades, slug- and limpet-like forms have also independently evolved within the Neritimorpha (Uribe et al., 2016).

Some marine genera of Neritimorpha are associated with particular marine environments; for example, Smaragdia occurs in association with seagrass, while Neritina lives in brackish water environments (Costa et al., 2001). Finding these same taxa in the fossil record therefore is very useful for interpreting past environments.

Modern Nerita peloronta from Bermuda (PRI 70104). Note that the operculum of the shell is in situ. Creative Commons License
This work by the Digital Atlas of Ancient Life is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

It is estimated (Zapata et al., 2014; Uribe et al., 2016) that Neritimorpha originated sometime in the late Paleozoic and may share some degree of relationship to the platyceratids (Frýda et al., 2009), which were important gastropods in the early Paleozoic.

Families of Neritimorpha

Gofas (2009) recognizes the following gastropod families as members of the Heterobranchia († indicates extinct families). This list was copied from MolluscaBase on February 7, 2017 and is reposted here in concordance with the source material’s Creative Commons BY 4.0 license. The link associated with each name will direct you to additional information about that family on MolluscaBase.

Order Cycloneritimorpha

Family Dawsonellidae Wenz, 1938 †
Family Deianiridae Wenz, 1938 †
Family Helicinidae Férussac, 1822
Family Neritiliidae Schepman, 1908
Family Proserpinellidae H. B. Baker, 1923
Family Proserpinidae Gray, 1847
Family Hydrocenidae Troschel, 1857
Family Naticopsidae Waagen, 1880 †
Family Trachyspiridae Nützel, Frýda, Yancey & Anderson, 2007 †
Family Neridomidae Bandel, 2008 †
Family Neritidae Rafinesque, 1815
Family Parvulatopsidae Gründel, Keupp & Lang, 2015 †
Family Phenacolepadidae Pilsbry, 1895
Family Pileolidae Bandel, Gründel & Maxwell, 2000 †
Family Cortinellidae Bandel, 2000 †
Family Delphinulopsidae Blodgett, Frýda & Stanley, 2001 †
Family Globocornidae Espinosa & Ortea, 2010
Family Neritopsidae Gray, 1847
Family Plagiothyridae Knight, 1956 †
Family Pseudorthonychiidae Bandel & Frýda, 1999 †
Family Titiscaniidae Bergh, 1890
Family Symmetrocapulidae Wenz, 1938 †

Order Cyrtoneritimorpha

Family Orthonychiidae Bandel & Frýda, 1999 †
Family Vltaviellidae Bandel & Frýda, 1999 †

Families Unassigned to Order

Family Craspedostomatidae Wenz, 1938 †
Family Pragoscutulidae Frýda, 1998 †
Family Nerrhenidae Bandel & Heidelberger, 2001 †
Family Oriostomatidae Koken, 1896 †
Family Tubinidae Knight, 1956 †
Family Palaeotrochidae Knight, 1956 †
Family Platyceratidae Hall, 1879 †; learn more at the Ordovician Atlas.



Costa, F. H. A., R. H. Nehm, and C. S. Hickman. 2001. Neogene Paleontology of the Northern Dominican Republic 22: The family Neritidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Bulletins of American Paleontology 359.

Frýda, J., P. R. Racheboeuf, B. Frýdová, L. Ferrová, M. Mergl, and S. Berkyová. 2009. Platyceratid gastropods — stem group of patellogastropods, neritimorphs or something else? Bulletin of Geosciences 84: 107-120. DOI: 10.3140/bull.geosci.1125.

Gofas, S. 2009. Neritimorpha. Accessed on February 7, 2017 through: MolluscaBase at http://www.molluscabase.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=156484.

Uribe, J. E., D. Colgan, L. R. Castro, Y. Kano, and R. Zardoya. 2016. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Neritimorpha (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 104, 21-31. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2016.07.021.

Zapata, F., N. G. Wilson, M. Howison, S. C. S. Andrade, K. M. Jörger, M. Schrödl, F. E. Goetz, G. Giribet, and C. W. Dunn. 2014. Phylogenomic analyses of deep gastropod relationships reject Orthogastropoda. Prooceeding of the Royal Society, B, 281: 20141739. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.1739. Link