Elizabeth J. Hermsen, Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A.
This chapter first publicly shared on March XX, 2019. Last updated XXX.
Hermsen, E.J. 2019. Embryophytes (land plants). In: The Digital Encyclopedia of Ancient Life. digitalatlasofancientlife.org/learn/
- Introduction to the embrophytes
- Overview of land plant relationships (coming soon!)
- Origin of land plants (coming soon)
- The land plant life cycle
- Spores (coming soon)
- Bryophytes (coming soon)
- Protracheophytes & early tracheophytes (coming soon)
- Lycophytes (coming soon)
- Trimerophytes (coming soon)
- Equisetophytes (coming soon)
- Eusporangiate ferns (coming soon)
- Leptosporangiate ferns (coming soon)
- Gymnosperms (coming soon)
- Angiosperms (flowering plants)
Feature image: Representative embryophytes. Top row, left to right: Thalloid liverworts (Marchantia); angiosperm wood (Quercus) showing growth rings; a horsetail cone (Equiestum sp.); a reconstruction of an early polysporangiophyte; and groundcedar, a modern lycophyte (Diphasiastrum digitatum). Bottom row, left to right: A fossil sycamore leaf (Platanus wyomingensis, Eocene, U.S.A.); ovulate (female) cones of bald cypress, a conifer (Taxodium distichum); cast of the base of an ancient tree stump (Eospermatopteris, Devonian, Gilboa, New York, U.S.A.); fiddlehead of a Christmas fern (Polystichum arostichoides). Credit: E.J. Hermsen (DEAL).
Note: Free full text is made available by the publisher for items marked with a green star.
Esau, K. 1977. Anatomy of seed plants, 2nd. ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Evert, R.F., and S.E. Eichhorn. 2013. Raven biology of plants, 8th ed. W.H. Freeman and Co., New York, New York.
Foster, A.S., and Gifford, E.M. 1974. Comparative morphology of vascular plants, 2nd ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.
Simpson, M.G. 2010. Plant systematics, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Burlington, Massachusetts.
Stewart, W.N., and G.W. Rothwell. 1993. Paleobotany and the evolution of plants, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, T.N., E.L. Taylor, and M. Krings. 2009. Paleobotany, the Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants, 2nd ed. Academic Press.
* Arens, C. [later upated by N.C. Arens, C. Strömberg, and A. Thompson.] 1998. Virtual Paleobotany Lab. University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, California. https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/IB181/HpageIB181.html
* Boyer, J. 2019. Plant evolution & paleobotany. https://sites.google.com/site/paleoplant/
* Steur, H. 2019. Hans' paleobotany pages. https://steurh.home.xs4all.nl/home.html#inhoud
Usage of text and images created for DEAL: Text on this page was written by Elizabeth J. Hermsen. Original written content created by E.J. Hermsen for the Digital Encyclopedia of Ancient Life that appears on this page is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Original images created by E.J. Hermsen are also licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Adapted images. Images that have been adapted or remixed for DEAL (e.g., labelled images, multipanel figures) are governed by the terms of the original image license(s) covering attribution, general reuse, and commercial reuse. DEAL places no further restrictions above or beyond those of the original creator(s) and/or copyright holder(s) on adapted images, although we ask that you credit DEAL if reusing an adapted image from the DEAL website. Please note that some DEAL figures may only be reused with permission of the creator(s) or copyright holder(s) of the original images. Consult the individual image credits for further details.